Discomfort can be a symptom of a variety of diseases.
Pain before, during, or immediately after intercourse is called dyspareunia.
Many mistakenly believe that pain, especially mild pain, is worth “enduring”. It happens, it’s okay, lie down – and it will pass. In fact, such symptoms can indicate violations, including serious ones.
How hormones affect pain during and after sex
Pain can be associated with the phases of the cycle: such pain often occurs on the eve of menstruation as a result of a drop in estrogen levels and swelling of the whole body. Also, discomfort occurs due to hormonal failure or long-term use of oral contraceptives.
How do “female” diseases or infections affect pain during and after sex
If ailments directly affect the functioning of the female genital organs, they can also cause pain. Inflammatory diseases of the vulva, vagina and cervix can cause irritation and swelling of the mucosa of the external genital organs. With inflammation, in addition to pain, sometimes profuse vaginal discharge, itching and burning are disturbing.
Skin diseases of the vulva or allergic reactions (food, contact when wearing pads, atopic dermatitis) also cause pain during or after sex.
With inflammation of the mucous membrane (endometritis) and uterine appendages during intercourse, a woman may feel aching pain in the lower abdomen or above the pubis. Moreover, this pain can persist for a long time, even accompanied by fever and discharge with an unpleasant odor. With endometritis, bloody discharge may appear.
The adhesive process in the pelvis is the cause of dull aching pain with deep penetration or in certain positions.
Also, sexual intercourse causes discomfort if a woman has cystitis and chronic constipation.
If pain occurs with deep penetration, most often we are talking about endometriosis (growth of the endometrium, the uterine mucosa in atypical places and organs).
Cervical cancer is often accompanied by nagging pains and spotting after sex (yes, cancer has become younger in recent decades and occurs even in 20-year-old girls!)
With cysts and tumors of the ovaries during sex, their torsion is possible, as well as rupture of the cyst (apoplexy). In this case, there is a sharp sharp pain, perhaps even the appearance of nausea and vomiting.
This life-threatening condition requires urgent hospitalization!
Discomfort may occur due to vaginal dryness. Its cause can be either the absence or insufficient foreplay, or more serious things – for example, malnutrition and atrophy of the vulvar mucosa, a silent epidemic of our time, in which sexual life becomes impossible;
How does the psychological state affect the pain during sex
There are psychogenic diseases that are accompanied by pain during sex, and often lead to them.
Previous abuse, early onset of sexual activity, the presence of mental illness, depression or trauma can all prevent sexual relaxation and adequate lubrication, as well as cause diseases such as vaginismus or vulvodynia.
In such cases, one cannot do without the help of a psychotherapist and a neurologist.
How structural features affect pain during sex
Of course, one should not forget about anatomical disorders of the pelvic organs (congenital malformations), prolapse of the walls of the vagina, uterus, the consequences of traumatic childbirth (ruptures, forceps, vacuum), surgical operations on the female genitals (including female circumcision).
In any case, pain is always a symptom of a disorder, so a doctor’s consultation is necessary.